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Periodontics - Dental Research

What is periodontitis?

Periodontal disease is a disease of the gums around the teeth. Plaque grows on the surface of a tooth causing inflammation in the gums and periodontal tissues. This causes opening between the tooth and the tissue.¹ The openings continue to grow as more bacteria fill the pockets. As the pockets get worse, the bone starts to become damaged. If the damage gets too bad the tooth can detach from the bone and can be lost.¹

Examination of Periodontal Disease

A periodontist checks the color and condition of the gums and measures the deepness of the pockets. X-rays are taken and the bone line is examined.² The movement of the teeth and the amount of calculus also reveals the stage the disease is at.² A treatment is determined by the severity of the disease. There are non-surgical treatments and surgical therapies.

Indications of gum disease

  • inflamed or bleeding gums
  • tenacious bad breath
  • gums pulling away from teeth
  • unattached teeth
  • change in bite of teeth

Types of Periodontal Disease:

It is any condition that is in the gums and affects the structure of the teeth³
  • Gingivitis – mildest form of the disease.
  • Chronic Periodontitis.
  • Aggressive Periodontitis.
  • Periodontitis Caused by Conditions of the Body.
  • Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases.

Non-surgical Treatments:

  • Professional Cleaning
    • Dentists clean and remove plaque and tartar from the teeth and gum line. This lowers the chance of gum disease.‡
  • Scaling and Root
    • An anesthetic is used on the gums and the plaque is scraped out by the dentist.  The tooth and gums are smoothed so that the gums can reattach to the teeth. Sometimes an antibiotic is used to help in the healing.‡

Surgical Procedures:

  • Periodontal Surgery
    • Pocket Reduction Procedures
    • Regenerative Procedures
    • Dental Crown Lengthening
    • Gum Graft Surgery
  • Dental Implants
    • For people who already lost a tooth

What are Dental Implants and what are their advantages?

  • Dental implants are artificial replacements for a tooth that has fallen out either by periodontics or an injury.  These implants act as a tooth root connected to the bone of the jaw and the tooth itself looks completely real.  Implants are sturdy, long-lasting and do not affect the surrounding teeth.†
  • Dental implants give better oral health by filling in the gap in a smile.  The teeth surrounding the implant do not need to be altered or moved to allow the implant to work.
  • The success rate for implants are very high.
  • Anyone can get an implant as long as there is enough bone to attach the implant to.
  • Implants do not need to be taken out nor do they need adhesives to keep them in place like dentures do.
  • They are better than dentures.


References:


healthy teeth and gums
Figure 1: Healthy tooth¹


moderate periodontitis
Figure 2: Moderately unhealthy tooth¹


Advanced periodontitis
Figure 3: Unhealthy Tooth¹

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